دانلود کتاب ویروس شناسی جاوتز-Jawetz
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, a large and diverse group of microscopic organisms that exist as single cells or cell clusters; it also includes viruses, which are microscopic but not cellular. Microorganisms have a tremendous impact on all life and the physical and chemical makeup of our planet.
They are responsible for cycling the chemical elements essential for life, including carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen, and oxygen; more photosynthesis is carried out by microorganisms than by green plants. Furthermore, there are 100 million times as many bacteria in the
oceans (13 × ۱۰۲۸) as there are stars in the known universe.
The rate of viral infections in the oceans is about 1 × ۱۰۲۳ infections per second, and these infections remove 20–۴۰% of all bacterial cells each day. It has been estimated that 5 × ۱۰۳۰ microbial cells exist on earth; excluding cellulose, these cells constitute about 90% of the biomass of the entire biosphere.
Humans also have an intimate relationship with microorganisms; more than 90% of the cells in our bodies are microbes. The bacteria present in the average human gut weigh about 1 kg, and a human adult will excrete his or her own weight in fecal bacteria each year. The number of genes contained within this gut flora outnumber that contained within our genome 150-fold, and even in our own genome, 8% of the DNA is derived from remnants of viral genomes.
|نویسنده:||Karen C. Carroll, Janet Butel, Stephen Morse|
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